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PRODUCT MONOGRAPHS

Bachem offers for free a series of brochures on selected groups of products in peptide research and detailed manuals on peptide synthesis.

Product Monographs

Dap Dab Derivatives
Derivatives of the α,ω-diaminocarboxylic acids α,β-diaminopropionic acid (Dap), α,γ-diaminobutyric acid (Dab), and related compounds.
(pdf, 929 KB) Bachem
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Diabetes Peptides
In 2014, according to data from the WHO, 422 million adults (or 8.5% of the population) had diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, compared with 108 million (4.7%) in 1980. Diabetes mellitus can be divided into two main types, type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and type 2, or non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The absolute lack of insulin, due to destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells, is the particular disorder in type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is mainly characterized by the inability of cells to respond to insulin. The condition affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissue, and results in a condition known as „insulin resistance“.
(pdf, 6 MB)
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Diabetes Peptides CN
According to data from the International Diabetes Federation, more than 250 million people around the world suffer from diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus can be divided into two main types, type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and type 2, or non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The absolute lack of insulin, due to destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells, is the particular disorder in type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is mainly characterized by the inability of cells to respond to insulin. The condition affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissue, and results in a condition known as „insulin resistance“.
(pdf, 4 MB)
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Endothelins
The endothelins are a family of 21-amino acid vasoconstrictor peptides comprised of three isoforms, endothelin-1, endothelin-2, and endothelin- 3. Endothelins mediate their actions via two receptor types, classifi ed as the ET-A and ET-B receptors. All three endothelin peptides contain four cysteine residues, which form two intramolecular disulfi de bonds and show structural similarity to the family of sarafotoxins originally isolated from snake venom. The endothelins are encoded by distinct genes on separate chromosomes and are synthesized as preproendothelins. These are cleaved by furin-like convertases to produce big endothelins, which are further processed to the mature, active peptides by endothelin-converting enzymes. The endothelin system is involved in developmental processes of neural crest-derived structures and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis and in various pathological conditions including pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.
(pdf, 2 MB) Bachem
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FRET Substrates
FRET Substrates
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is the non-radiative transfer of energy from an excited fluorophore (or donor) to a suitable quencher (or acceptor) molecule. FRET is used in a variety of applications including the measurement of protease activity with substrates, in which the fluorophore is separated from the quencher by a short peptide sequence containing the enzyme cleavage site. Proteolysis of the peptide results in fluorescence as the fluorophore and quencher are separated. In this brochure we present a range of highly sensitive FRET protease substrates for a variety of enzymes.
(pdf, 5 MB) Bachem
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Ghrelin, Leptin and Obestatin
Ghrelin Leptin Obestatin
Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide discovered by Kojima et al. in 1999 during the search for an unknown endogenous ligand of a receptor of known structure and function. It is a 28 amino acid peptide with an essential n-octanoyl modification on the hydroxy group of Ser3. It displays strong growth hormone-releasing activity mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Ghrelin participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis, increases food intake, and decreases energy expenditure by lowering the catabolism of fat. Several years after the isolation of ghrelin a second peptide derived from preproghrelin was isolated from rat stomach. This 23 amino acid peptide named obestatin was initially considered to oppose the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) effects of ghrelin. It was also reported to be the cognate ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR39. Later studies, however, cast doubt on the initial findings as subsequent studies failed to confirm the anorexigenic effects of obestatin. Leptin, a satiety hormone produced by white adipose tissue, was discovered in 1994 and represents another appetite regulator. Leptin and ghrelin are supposed to share hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and energy homeostasis.
(pdf, 623 KB) Bachem
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Isotope labeled Peptides
In addition to our research-grade peptides and generic API products Bachem offers deuterated, 13C-, and 15N-labeled analogs for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics studies as well as analogs suitable for radiolabeling. Contrary to working with radionuclide-labeled peptides, licenses and additional safety measures are not required for handling stable isotope-labeled peptides.
(pdf, 343 KB)
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LHRH Agonists and Antagonists
LHRH Agonists Antagonists
LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) is a decapeptide hormone which is synthesized in neurosecretory cells within the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile fashion into the pituitary portal circulation. Since it controls the secretion of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) from the anterior pituitary gland, it is also designated as GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Pulsatile secretion is essential for reproductive functions, sexual development and differentiation. Prolonged non-pulsatile administration of LHRH results in a down-regulation of LH and FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary gland, followed by a suppression of gonadal steroid synthesis. This effect, which is shared by longer-acting GnRH agonists, is used for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers but also for the treatment of endometriosis and precocious puberty. In reproductive medicine, continuous administration of LHRH agonists serves to prevent a premature LH surge prior to stimulation of ovulation. In this brochure we present our LHRH agonists and antagonists for endocrinological research and its generic APIs in this field.
(pdf, 3 MB) Bachem
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Matrix Metalloproteinases
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of more than 25 secreted and membrane bound enzymes that degrade numerous pericellular substrates. Their targets include other proteinases, clotting factors, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, cell surface receptors, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and almost all structural extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, MMPs play a role in normal tissue modelling and differentiation during development. In pathological conditions they are involved in infl ammation, degradation of bone, autoimmune diseases, and in the invasive migration of cancer cells across the basement membrane as in tumor metastasis. To identify the role of a particular MMP in these disease states, it is desirable to have a series of synthetic peptide substrates that allow a rapid discrimination of different MMP activities.
(pdf, 4 MB) Bachem
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Melanoma Peptides
Malignant melanoma is a dramatically increasing public health problem with overall more than 232`000 new cases and about 55`000 deaths estimated in 2012. At an early stage melanoma is surgically completely curable, but recurrent or metastatic melanoma is often resistant to classical therapies and the outcome of advanced melanoma is almost always fatal. A major breakthrough in the treatment of melanoma was obtained in March 2011, when the FDA granted broad approval for use of the immune-checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab for patients with late-stage metastatic melanoma. This brought a clear survival advantage observed for a patient group with no other therapeutic options. Nowadays, immunotherapy plays an outstanding role for the melanoma therapy, reflected by the fact, that only two of six drugs approved in recent years by the FDA are not immunotherapies. However, several therapeutic hurdles are still to overcome, and approaches like vaccination could contribute to further improvements in melanoma therapy. Thereby, peptides are indispensable tools for experimental research.
(pdf, 444 KB) Bachem
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