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PRODUCT MONOGRAPHS

Bachem offers for free a series of brochures on selected groups of products in peptide research and detailed manuals on peptide synthesis.

Product Monographs

NPY Peptides
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) belong to a structurally and functionally related family of peptides (NPY peptides), also known as the neuropeptide Y family. Whereas PYY and PP are gut hormones, NPY is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. The peptides of the neuropeptide Y family mediate their effects through several G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in case of the NPY system the so-called Y receptors. All three peptide hormones consist of 36 amino acid residues and are C-terminally amidated. In addition to a distinct sequence homology, they share a common hairpin-like three-dimensional structure, known as the pancreatic polypeptide fold (PP-fold). NPY peptides fulfill important physiological functions via their receptors, but are also implicated in a number of disease states. Examples include obesity, cancer, autoimmune-diseases and neurological disorders.
(pdf, 2 MB)
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N Methylated Amino Acids
N-Methylated amino acids are present in a wide variety of biological molecules such as complex molecular structures of certain microbial peptides and nucleic acid-binding proteins involved in gene regulation and gene expression. Methylation reactions generally increase the biochemical synthesis repertoire of cells and can serve as regulatory mechanisms.
(pdf, 1 MB) Bachem
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Nonionic Detergents
Detergents are amphipathic molecules that contain both polar and hydrophobic groups. All detergents are characterized as containing a hydrophilic “head” region and a hydrophobic “tail” region. In contrast to purely polar or non-polar molecules, amphipathic molecules exhibit unique properties in water. Their polar group forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules, while the hydrocarbon chains aggregate due to hydrophobic interactions. These properties allow detergents to be soluble in water and also to solubilize hydrophobic compounds in water.
(pdf, 866 KB) Bachem
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Orthogonality
The term “orthogonal” was coined by Barany and Merrifield in 1977 to designate “classes of protecting groups which are removed by differing chemical mechanisms. Therefore they can be removed in any order and in the presence of the other classes. Orthogonal protection schemes allow milder overall reaction conditions as well as the synthesis of partially protected peptides” (G. Barany and R.B. Merrifield). The combination Fmoc/tBu is truly orthogonal whereas, under the conditions of Boc-SPPS, Boc/Bzl is not, as both protecting groups are cleaved by acids. As Boc can be selectively removed in the presence of Z/Bzl, the combination has been termed “quasiorthogonal”.
(pdf, 994 KB) Bachem
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PAR Activating Peptides
Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a class of G-proteincoupled receptors consisting of four known members (PAR-1 to PAR-4). PARs are coupled to multiple signal transduction pathways and are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes including platelet activation, arterial thrombosis, inflammation and tumor progression. Receptor signaling is initiated by enzymatic cleavage at a specific site within the extracellular Nterminal domain of PARs by a serine protease. Proteolysis results in exposure of a tethered ligand domain that interacts with the receptor resulting in activation. Short synthetic peptide sequences corresponding to the tethered ligand motif of the proteolytically generated new N-terminal region can also bind to and activate PARs. In this monograph, Bachem offers a range of PAR-activating peptides and analogs useful for studying receptor function.
(pdf, 3 MB) Bachem
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Peptides in Cancer Research
This brochure discusses the potential use of peptides as anticancer drugs highlighting current scenario and future prospects. Some peptides are also used as diagnostic tools for cancer detection. G-protein-coupled receptors are most important targets in drug development. Many of them are overexpressed in tumor cells. Amongst them, the GnRH receptor is the target of a considerable number of GnRH agonists and antagonists used in cancer management. GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) or LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) is a decapeptide produced in in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile fashion into the pituitary portal circulation. Prolonged non-pulsatile administration of LHRH leads to downregulation of LH and FSH secretion, followed by a suppression of gonadal steroid synthesis. For this reason, longer-acting GnRH agonists as well as antagonists are used for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast and prostate cancers. Most neuroendocrine tumors show a marked overexpression of somatostatin receptors, especially of sst2, which instigated the development of somatostatin agonists as octreotide. These compounds also play an important role in diagnosis. Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide receptors can be overexpressed in malignant cells. Antagonists of these peptides inhibit tumor growth. Active immunization by peptide vaccines is another promising strategy to fight cancer.
(pdf, 2 MB)
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Peptides in Cosmetics
Peptides are involved in many physiological processes. Their broad acceptance as natural molecules, relatively high stability and welldefined actions have made them attractive for many skin-related indications, most notably in anti-aging therapy. The aging population and their prevalent wish to keep a young and healthy appearance have substantially driven the development of anti-aging products. Many peptides marketed in cosmetic products are advertised to slow down or even reverse the aging process of the skin. Common modes of action include stimulation of collagen synthesis and inhibition of neurotransmitter release in order to reduce fine lines and wrinkles caused by the repetitive muscular activities of facial expression. We have considerable expertise and long-standing experience in peptide synthesis. With our capacity to upscale the production of simple and modified peptides, we are the partner of choice for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
(pdf, 1 MB) Bachem
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Peptides in Cosmetics (Chinese Version)
Peptides are involved in many physiological processes. Their broad acceptance as natural molecules, relatively high stability and welldefined actions have made them attractive for many skin-related indications, most notably in anti-aging therapy. The aging population and their prevalent wish to keep a young and healthy appearance have substantially driven the development of anti-aging products. Many peptides marketed in cosmetic products are advertised to slow down or even reverse the aging process of the skin. Common modes of action include stimulation of collagen synthesis and inhibition of neurotransmitter release in order to reduce fine lines and wrinkles caused by the repetitive muscular activities of facial expression. We have considerable expertise and long-standing experience in peptide synthesis. With our capacity to upscale the production of simple and modified peptides, we are the partner of choice for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
(pdf, 5 MB)
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Pseudoproline Dipeptides
The synthesis of very long peptides and “difficult sequences” by chemical means still poses a challenge to the peptide chemist. The difficulties encountered during such syntheses usually are due to the aggregation of the resin-bound peptide. Proline residues disrupt such ordered structures efficiently. Temporary Pro mimics can be readily obtained from Ser and Thr by oxazolidine (“pseudoproline”) formation. The 2,2-dimethyloxazolidines are smoothly cleaved by trifluoroacetic acid and thus suitable for Fmoc-SPPS. Disruption of Ser- and/ or Thr-containing aggregates is achieved as well by introducing depsipeptide (“O-acyl isopeptide”) bonds into the peptide backbone. The resulting isopeptide is rearranged yielding the desired sequence in slightly basic solution.
(pdf, 597 KB) Bachem
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Secretase Substrates Inhibitors
The deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain represents a neuropathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aβ is generated from its precursor protein (APP) via cleavage by β- and γ-secretases. Reducing Aβ production by inhibiting β- and γ-secretases has been suggested as a specific therapeutic intervention in preventing the progression of the disease. The activation of α-secretase, which cleaves APP within the amyloid region and thereby increases the non-amyloidogenic processing of APP, has been considered as an additional approach.
(pdf, 1 MB) Bachem
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